** Enjoy the flight.... **

**.... And, learn something new... **

** **

- Home
- Airport Terminal
- Gate 1/Pre-algebra
- Greatest Common Factor & Least Common Multiple
- Decimals
- Decimals Puzzle
- Fractions Exercises
- Mixed Numbers
- Percentages
- Converting Fractions Decimals Percentages
- Word Problems
- Angles & Triangles Exercise
- Middle School Geometry
- Conversions
- Negative Numbers
- Mean Median Mode
- Scientific Notation
- Pre-Algebra Review 1
- Pre-Algebra Review 2
- Pre-Algebra Review 3

- Gate 2/Algebra
- Numbers
- Algebra Preview
- Algebra Preview 2
- Exponents & Roots and Order of Operations
- Negative Exponents and Variables
- Exponents and Exponential Equations
- Inequalities and Number Line
- Absolute Value and Inequalities
- Absolute Value and Inequalities Videos
- Linear Equations
- Linear Equations 2
- Linear Systems
- Linear Systems 2
- Slope & Linear Equations Videos
- Linear Programming (Optimization)
- Story Graphs
- Inverse Functions
- Average Midpoint Distance Test
- Radicals
- Intro to Polynomials
- Factoring Quadratics
- Simplifying Rational Polynomials
- Simplifying Rational Expressions
- f(x) and Piecewise functions
- Probability
- Word Problems
- Word Problems 2
- Algebra Word Problem Videos
- Algebra Word Problem Videos 2
- Domain, Range, Functions, & Relations
- Algebra Review 1
- Algebra Review 2
- Algebra Review 3
- Algebra Review 4

- Gate 3/Geometry
- Geometry Introduction
- Angle Properties
- Triangle Characteristics
- Polygons
- Special Quadrilaterals 1
- Special Quadrilaterals 2
- Logic and Reasoning
- Always Sometimes Never
- Proofs & Postulates 0
- Proofs & Postulates 1
- Proofs & Postulates 2
- Equidistance Theorem
- Parallel Lines Cut by Transversals
- Planes Properties and Proofs
- Means Extremes and Right Triangles
- Triangle Median Altitude Bisectors
- Midpoint and Distance
- Similarity and Proportions 1
- Similarity and Proportions 2
- Similarity and Proportions 3
- Similarity and Proportions 4
- Pythagorean Theorem & Distance
- Pythagorean Theorem 2 (more questions)
- Area and Perimeter of Polygons 1
- Area and Perimeter of Polygons 2
- Area and Perimeter of Complex Shapes
- Surface Area
- Volume
- Circles Introduction
- Circles and Geometry
- Circles and Inscribed Figures
- Circles Review (Honors)
- Circles Review (Advanced)
- Word Problems
- Coordinate Geometry 1
- Coordinate Geometry 2
- Coordinate Geometry 3 Drawing Exercise
- Coordinate Geometry 4 - Advanced
- Locus of Points
- Geometry Construction Videos 1 - Intro
- Geometry Construction Videos 2- Intermediate
- Geometry Construction Videos 3- Advanced
- Geometry Extras
- Geometry Review 1
- Geometry Review 2
- Geometry Review 3
- Geometry Review 4

- Gate 4/Trigonometry
- Angle Measurement
- Arc Length & Sector Area
- Right Triangle Review
- Trigonometry Introduction
- Word Problems
- Unit Circle and Trigonometry Functions
- Inverse Trig Values
- Law of Sines and Cosines I
- Law of Sines and Cosines II
- Navigation
- Periodic Functions I - Sine (Graphs)
- Periodic Functions II - Cosine
- Periodic Functions III - Tangent
- Periodic Functions IV - Reciprocals
- Periodic Inverse Functions
- Periodic Trig Function Models
- Trig Identities I - Introduction
- Trig Identities II - Double Angles
- Trig Identities III - Solving and Graphing
- Trig Identities IV - Review Test
- Polar Coordinates and Complex System
- Polar Equations and Graphs
- Trigonometry Extras
- Trigonometry Review 1
- Trigonometry Review 2
- Trigonometry Review 3
- Trigonometry Review 4

- Gate 5/Algebra II
- Algebra I/Geometry Review
- Algebra II Preview
- Inverses
- Graphing I - Parent Functions & Transformations
- Graphing II - Translation, Reflection, & Rotation
- Graphing III Identifying Functions
- Graphing Functions Videos
- Double Absolute Values
- Composite Functions Topics
- Quadratics Overview
- Completing the Square & Quadratic Formula
- Identifying Quadratic Equations from Points
- Modeling Word Problems
- Polynomials: Factors, Roots & Theorems I
- Polynomials: Factors, Roots, & Theorems II
- Solving Rational Equations
- Sketching Rational Expressions I
- Sketching Rational Expressions II
- Reciprocal Functions
- Conics I - Circles & Ellipses
- Conics II - Hyperbolas and Parabolas
- Conics III - Review Properties
- Conics IV - Systems
- Conics V - More Advanced
- Rotation of Axes
- Semicircles
- Matrix I Examples
- Matrix II and Determinants
- Matrix III Coordinate Geometry
- Imaginary and Complex Numbers
- Rational Exponents & Radical Equations
- Exponents and Exponential Equations (Honors)
- Logarithms and Exponents I
- Logarithms and Exponents II
- Logarithms and Exponents III (Advanced)
- Growth Decay Interest & Half-Life
- Combinations, Permutations, & Counting
- Sequences & Series I
- Sequences & Series II
- Sequences & Series III
- Binomial Expansion Theorem
- Math Induction
- Parametric Equations
- Vectors I
- Vectors II
- 3 Dimesional Space and Vectors
- Partial Fractions
- Algebra II Notation & Operations Puzzle
- Algebra II review 1
- Algebra II review 2
- Algebra II review 3
- Algebra II review 4
- Algebra II review 5
- Pre-Calculus Advanced Questions
- Travel Log: Algebra II

- Gate 6/Calculus
- Algebra II/Trig Practice Exam
- Limits and Asymptotes
- Definition of Instantaneous Rate of Change
- Continuity & Differentiability
- Intro to Derivatives
- Derivative Rules: Product/Quotient, Chain & Power
- Derivative Rules: Trigonometry Functions
- Chain Rule
- Derivative Rules: Log, Exponents, & Trig functions
- Applications of derivatives
- Derivative max/min word problems
- Sketching Graphs 1: 1st and 2nd derivatives
- Sketching Graphs 2: anti-derivatives
- Position Velocity Speed Acceleration
- Implicit Differentiation
- Related Rates of Change
- Using Derivatives in Economics
- Intro to Integrals
- Antiderivatives and Integrals
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 1)
- Trapezoid Rule
- Definite Integrals & Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (Part 2)
- Definite Integrals Concepts and Applications
- Definite Integrals and Area Between Curves
- Natural log and e
- Improper Integrals
- Volumes of Solids 1
- Volumes of Solids 2
- Arc Length
- Trig Substitutions
- Separable Differential Equations
- Using Integrals in Economics
- Calculus Extras
- Calculus Review 1
- Calculus Review 2
- Calculus Review 3 AP Multiple Choice
- Calculus Review 4 AP Free Response
- Calculus Review 5 AP Multiple Choice 2

- Gate 7/Statistics
- Airport Terminal 2
- Gate A/Instant Answers
- Math Resources: Definitions
- Math Resources: Calculators
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 0
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 1
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 2
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 3
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 4
- TI nspire cx cas calculator tutorial 5
- TI nspire cx cas calculator questions
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 1
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 2
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 3
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 4
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 5
- TI nspire cx cas calculator project 6

- Gate B/ACT/SAT Topics
- ACT subjects to know
- SAT subjects to know
- ACT/SAT Quick Quiz 1
- ACT/SAT Quick Quiz 2
- ACT/SAT Quick Quiz 3
- ACT/SAT Quick Quiz 4*
- Mental Math Speed Drills
- ACT Practice Test 1
- ACT Practice Test 2
- ACT Practice Test 3
- ACT Practice Test 4
- ACT Practice Test 5
- SAT Practice Test 1
- SAT Practice Test 2
- SAT Practice Test 3
- SAT Practice Test 4*
- SAT Practice Test 5
- Challenging ACT/SAT practice test 1
- Challenging ACT/SAT practice test 2
- ACT Hidden Message Puzzle 1
- ACT Hidden Message Puzzle 2
- Overview & Random Suggestions
- SAT Subject Test Level 2 Topics to know
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test A
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test B
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test C
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test D
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test E
- SAT Math Level 2 Practice Test F
- SAT 2 Hidden Message Puzzle

- Gate C/Math Places around the Virtual World
- Gate D/Webcomics
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2011)
- Math Comics Archive (Winter 2012)
- Math Comics Archive (Spring 2012)
- Math Comics Archive (Summer 2012)
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2012)
- Math Comics Archive (Winter 2013)
- Math Comics Archive (Spring 2013)
- Math Comics Archive (Summer 2013)
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2013)
- Math Comics Archive (Winter 2014)
- Math Comics Archive (Spring 2014)
- Math Comics Archive (Summer 2014)
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2014)
- Math Comics Archive (Winter 2015)
- Math Comics Archive (Spring 2015)
- Math Comics Archive (Summer 2015)
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2015)
- Math Comics Archive (Winter 2016)
- Math Comics Archive (Spring 2016)
- Math Comics Archive (Summer 2016)
- Math Comics Archive (Fall 2016)

- Gate E/Destinations
- Travel Checklist
- Featured Destination math enrichment
- Featured Destination Solutions
- Random Places to Visit
- 2012 Puzzle
- Super Bowl XLVI
- I (Heart) Symmetry
- Prime Time
- Play Ball
- When in Rome
- Live at the Mobius Strip
- Trick Shots in the Pool Hall
- 2013 Puzzle
- 8 - wonder of the world
- In the Dog house
- parallelogram parking
- slice of pi
- April 15th Tax Relief
- Math Photos
- 2014 Puzzle
- 2015 Puzzle
- What are the odds?

- In-Flight Entertainment (Videos)
- Spare Parts
- Travel Log Collection
- About Us
- 2013 US Road Trip with Oscar the Dog
- 2013 US Road Trip with Oscar (Part II)
- 2014 US South Road Trip with Oscar
- 2014 US Summer Road Trip with Oscar (East)
- 2014 US Summer Road Trip with Oscar (South)
- 2015 Summer Road Trip with Oscar (Canada West)
- 2015 Summer Road Trip with Oscar (Canada East)
- Privacy
- Terms of Use
- Support
- Advertising

- Contact Us

Roman numerals, as the name suggests, originated in ancient Rome. No one is sure when they were first used, but it far predates the Middle Ages.

There are several theories as to the origins of this counting system, but it's commonly believed to have started with the ancient Etruscans. The symbol for 1 in the roman numeral system probably represented a single tally mark -- the kind people would notch into wood or draw into dirt to keep track of items or events they were counting.

### Translating Roman Numerals

_________________________________________

*Riddle: Using any symbol, what can you add to IX to make 6?*_________________________________________

Math Cartoon #54 - "Recovery in Ancient Rome: The ambiguity of Roman Numerals" (10-13-12) (Click lower right to view)

__________________________________________

### Connections:

Check out entertaining animated videos about roman numerals and math concepts at whyu.org

Practice using Roman Numerals; See the longest Roman Numeral: 3,888,888! at ostermiller.org

Roman Numeral exercises, flashcards, and converter, and other resources from Nicholasacademy.com

World of roman numerals | Lessons, history, examples, and games | resources adrian bruce

____________________________________________

### SOLUTIONS

___________________________________________

Download Roman Numerals Puzzles and Comics .pdf file

___________________________________________

*Riddle: What would a pack of M&M's cost in Ancient Rome? *

Roman Numerals are used in a variety of applications. If you are creating an outline, you may be expected to use roman numerals. They are commonly used on clocks and watches, number book chapters, events, and films. Monarchs and Popes are usually numbered with this system, as are guitar chords and cranial nerves.

Crossword Puzzle creators are fond of using Roman Numerals in their grids. (It allows puzzle creators to fill in spaces with odd combinations of letters while using clever clues). Examples that require translation might be the following: "M in ancient Rome" (1000/thousand); "half of MCIV" (DLII);

________________________________

Excerpt from "Number Stories of Long Ago" by David Eugene Smith (1919)

Titus liked to puzzle a chum of his named Caius, and one day he asked him this question : " What is the number that becomes one more when one is taken away from it ?"

"Your head," replied Caius, "must be just plain wood."

But when Titus wrote IX on the stone pavement and said to Caius, "Now take away the I and tell me what you have left," Caius saw that the wooden head had something in it after all.

Then Caius, remarking that he could think of many other numbers that would answer just as well, asked this question: "What is the number that becomes ten more when ten is taken away ? "Titus then asked Caius if he knew that half of nine was four, and Caius replied that he must be dreaming. But Titus pointed again to IX and asked Caius to take the upper half of it and see if it was not IV. Then Caius said that he could show that half of twelve was seven.

"That is nothing," said Titus; "half of thirteen is eight."

Source: Page 30

www.archive.org/stream/numberstorieslo01smitgoog/numberstorieslo01smitgoog_djvu.txt

_________________________________

Why does this Rolex watch use IIII instead of IV? Why do some clocks not use IV to represent 4?

Explanations include:

*Symmetry and weight balance* -- To oppose the VIII (eight), IIII was better than IV

*Respect for the Roman God Jupiter* -- IV is the symbol for Jupiter; so, public clocks used IIII instead of IV

*Ease of use*: Easier (and cheaper) to cast molding of IIII, instead of IV..

*Preference*: some just believe IIII is correct; or, they simply prefer IIII

Click here for sources and more explanations

_________________________________

*Hidden Message Puzzle II*

Click for Hidden Solutions!

_________________________________

Find more Hidden Message Puzzles in the Travel Log Collection or search throughout the site

_______________________________

*Math Riddle*: *If you take away 1/2 of five, you end up with four. How?*

_______________________________

"XLIX" by Chris Burke (2-1-15)

_______________________________